Journal Articles

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HIV Misdiagnosis in Pediatrics: Unpacking the Complexity

By Emma Sacks, Jennifer Cohn (EGPAF), and Martina Penazzato

This supplement article focuses on the importance of timely and accurate diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection.

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Voluntary medical male circumcision among adolescents: a missed opportunity for HIV behavioral interventions

VMMC is one of the first opportunities for adolescent males in African countries to interact with the health care system; HIV counseling at this interaction could maximize HIV prevention opportunities. This study explored male adolescent knowledge around HIV after VMMC and assessed health worker experiences through interviews with 92 VMMC clients (ages 10–19 years) and 33 health providers in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Clients in all countries reported that limited information was provided about HIV prevention and care during VMMC. Providers reported spending little time talking about HIV prevention, including condom use. This study identifies this male youth interaction in the health care system as a missed opportunity in furthering prevention of HIV in this population.

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Youth engagement in developing an implementation science research agenda on adolescent HIV testing and care linkages in sub-Saharan Africa

The Project Supporting Operational AIDS Research (Project SOAR), a United States Agency for the International Development-funded research initiative implemented by EGPAF, led development of a strategic research agenda to improve adolescent HIV care continuum outcomes, including HIV testing and counseling and linkage to care. This involved convening a two-day meeting of 50 experts, including youths living with HIV to review literature, develop research questions and priority areas for program implementation. This article presents the process of involving youth, how they shaped the course of discussions, and the resulting priority research gaps identified at the meeting.

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PMTCT Service Uptake Among Adolescents and Adult Women Attending Antenatal Care in Selected Health Facilities in Zimbabwe

By Musarandega R, et al.

Pregnant adolescents must be a priority for primary HIV prevention services and expanded HIV treatment services among pregnant women to achieve an AIDS-free generation in Zimbabwe and similar high HIV burden countries.

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Addressing Early Retention in Antenatal Care Among HIV-Positive Women Through a Simple Intervention in Kinshasa, DRC: The Elombe “Champion” Standard Operating Procedure

This cluster-randomized study measures the use of a standardized process (a standard operating procedure) to ensure consistency in retention support among HIV-positive women. It’s findings demonstrate a simple use of a procedure document has a positive effect on early retention of HIV-positive pregnant women on ART.

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Understanding Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Among HIV-Positive Women at Four Postpartum Time Intervals: Qualitative Results from the Kabeho Study in Rwanda

This study explored attitudes and perceptions among a cohort of HIV-positive women in Rwanda about enrolment on lifelong antiretroviral treatment. This paper provides insight into the key times and reasons for decreased adherence in the 2 year postpartum period.

 

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Understanding the Role and Impact of Effective Country and Community Leadership in Progress Toward the Global Plan

By Lyons, Charles BA; Pillay, Yogan PhD

Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress. Interviewees were selected from all levels of traditional hierarchies and sectors to provide a more complete account and representation of leadership, with a particular emphasis on the community, district, and country levels. The leaders interviewed provide insight into their work, motivations, and approaches to effective leadership. Through their experiences, they shed light on the strategies they used to drive changes in policy, programs, practice, and communities that allowed for progress toward the goals of the Global Plan. Leaders also identify future challenges and areas of improvement in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic that they feel require leadership and urgent action. In conclusion, this article identifies common characteristics of effective leadership and reflects on the experiences of individuals who are leaders in the effort to end the AIDS epidemic, and how their lessons learned can be applied to help realize future global...

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Detectable Viral Load in Late Pregnancy among Women in the Rwanda Option B+ PMTCT Program: Enrollment Results from the Kabeho Study

By Gill, Hoffman, Bobrow, Mugwaneza, Ndatimana, Ndayisaba, Baribwira, Guay, Asiimwe

This study explored the extent of viral suppression from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in Rwanda  among women enrolled in the Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) Study.

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Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study of SMS Text Messages for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural Kenya

By Kassaye, Ong’ech, Sirengo, Kose, Matu, McOdida, Simiyu, Syengo, Muthama, Machekano5

Antiretroviral medications are key for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, and transmission mitigation is affected by service delivery, adherence, and retention.

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Improving estimates of children living with HIV from the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model

By Mahy, Mary; Penazzato, Martina; Ciaranello, Andrea; Mofenson, Lynne; Yianoutsos, Constantin; Davies, Mary-Ann; Stover, John

Estimated numbers of children living with HIV determine programmatic and treatment needs. This paper explains the changes made to the UNAIDS estimates between 2015 and 2016 and describe the challenges around these estimates.

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